Framework vs Library
The first difference is a big one, jQuery is a library and Angular.js is a framework. What does that mean? A library provides some useful utilities in order to make things simpler and faster. Combine that with the uncountable jQuery plugins and you can do almost anything. A framework on the other side, offers a very specific project architecture that helps a developer organize his code, make it modular and DRY and also comes with preinstalled and required libraries. In fact, Angular.js has the jqLite library included, which is a limited version of jQuery.
SPA (Single Page Application)
MVW (Model View Whatever)
Most modern frameworks implement an MVC architecture and so does Angular.js but allows for simple applications that don’t implement controllers. The separation of Model and View allows for cleaner code, distinctive purposes for each file, and maybe even different developers working on them based on their specialty.